A Critical Examination Of Near Death Experiences – By An NDEer

A Critical Examination Of Near Death Experiences – By An NDEer

A friend recently sent me a link to a (yet another) new book about near death experiences (NDE’s): “God and the Afterlife” by Jeffrey Long. I wasn’t surprised to find that it offers the same misleading perspective on NDE’s that I’ve encountered almost exclusively .

My near death experience is what sparked my interest in the New World Order topics, since, after my NDE, I was somehow aware of certain things like chemtrails, and something being spiritually “off” in mainstream Christianity, all culminating in the creation of this website. I’ve learned quite a bit over the past 6 years and have been working on my own book about NDE’s for a while. It’s taking some time since I’d be remiss to tell this story without examining the phenomena in light of scripture and what’s taking place in the world today, which includes great spiritual deception. I believe NDE’s are being used as part of that deception.

Will (Youtuber; Truth Is Stranger Than Fiction) put together this wonderful video after some email conversations we’ve had on the subject.

Following is an essay on the topic.


NDE’s Spiritual Revelation or Occult Deception? – by Yvonne Nachtigal

(This essay may only be re-posted in part or entirety with prior permission – thank you!)

Popularity of Books About Near Death Experiences

The popularity of NDE’s might seem like an innocuous enough trend, even a good one since it does lead people to acknowledge a spiritual realm in face of our naturalistic education system. But as Christians we should be holding these experiences to scrutiny. As an NDEer who has studied this topic for some 6 years now, I’ve found that there is a relationship between the popularizing of NDEs, modern occultism, and the dislocation we’re seeing in the world today. NDEs are following a distinct trend toward occult spirituality, and it is not by chance.

Let me start by sharing just a bit about my near death experience which happened during brain surgery in 2011. My last recollection having been drifting off to sleep in the hallway leading to the OR, I was suddenly wide awake and I realized I was no longer in the operating room, I quickly surmised that I had died and that this was the “next” place. The experience was more “real” than the reality I had always known. Life in the natural world appeared to be very brief, temporary, but essential journey. I knew that this was a truer state of being; that this reality had always existed but that I’d only been aware of it on a subconscious level. The atmosphere there was love, but love seemed to have an actual substance. The love brought an immense rest and peace that I realized I’d longed for all my life. In my NDE I was being held by a giant light-being; an angel, who was composed of a substance that was completely foreign to me. The being was glorious. He spoke twice in my vision. His words were “The multitude is petitioning for you.” And “The petition is granted,” after which I woke up in the recovery room. My view of, and approach to life were profoundly changed by the experience. I no longer fear death, have a strong desire (almost compulsion) to find the underlying truth in all things and I tend to make decisions based on the spiritual, ultimate good rather than the momentary. I struggle to put the things I witnessed into words. There is simply no vocabulary for it. Life changes like mine are commonly expressed by NDEers. And like other NDEers, I believed that what I had experienced was profound spiritual truth.

NDEers’ commonly encounter bright, light-emitting, entities and report being surrounded by unspeakable love. Many people report a tunnel with light at the end drawing them toward it. (I did not.) Thoughts are lucid, vision and hearing are heightened, and there is a great sense that one understands the true meaning of existence. But can these experiences be relied upon to reveal spiritual truth? Not likely. NDEs are typically interpreted through the existing religious belief of the experiencer; Christians tend to see angels, loved ones and heaven; some report seeing things that are terrifying and hellish; Muslims see Allah, Hindus see Krishna, etc. But a vast majority return from “heaven” with messages that radically alter their previously accepted beliefs toward a decidedly mystical one.

People want to know what lies beyond the grave. People want answers to life’s deeper questions, questions that religions profess to answer: Who are we? Where are we? What is the problem? What is the answer? The answers most NDEers would give to these questions are typically that; in the truest sense, they are a spiritual being who has been blessed with profound knowledge of the afterlife. (As lofty as that might sound, it is how I felt following my NDE.) But if the messages brought by NDEers are actually coming from the afterlife, what are they telling us? And why do the vast majority of them have a spiritualistic, occult theme?

A Rising Interest in the Occult

There has been a sharp increase of belief in occult spirituality since the 1960’s. While at first glance, interest in the modern occult, or New Age Spirituality seems to be at odds with a scientific naturalistic/empirical worldview, many people are turning to intellectually appealing varieties of “light” occultism as their religion of choice, largely replacing the once commonly held belief in a creator-God who is separate from his creation.[i] While naturalism is still the officially accepted belief in our culture, only about 5% of the population actually believes it. Naturalism is most strongly represented by those in positions of power in universities, their thoughts dictating the “officially allowable truth” that society accepts and can comfortably express in public.[ii]  But modern quantum mechanics (aka quantum physics or quantum theory) has provided a scientifically palatable basis for the occult spirituality that many, including Christians are embracing. Naive to the occult origins of these “scientific” ideas, even people who hold to a biblical worldview are accepting them since they appear to legitimize a belief in the supernatural and support the biblical narrative. But do they? Or are we merely witnessing a return to pre-enlightenment, alchemical science? Alchemy, the science known best by its efforts to turn base elements to gold, delved extensively into occult spirituality.

NDE’s and Science

NDEs, (and other psychic phenomenon) are problematic for naturalistic science, as it cannot provide adequate answers to the questions they pose. Naturalistic scientists continue to maintain that the mind is merely a product of the brain, and that our awareness, or consciousness, is nothing but a result of chemical reactions. According to naturalistic scientists, we are nothing more than biological machines. But several NDE case studies, such as those examined in the book “Brain Wars” by Mario Beauregard, establish that, in the case of vertical NDEs (those that can be verified with empirical evidence), experiencers bring information they could not have obtained by any other means than their accounts being true. One remarkable case is that of Maria, a migrant farm worker who had an out of body experience while she had a cardiac arrest which she was quickly resuscitated from. Maria reported seeing the medical team working on her, as well as, at one point being outside of the hospital building where she said she saw a tennis shoe on the roof. Maria wanted to know if what she had seen was real, and described the shoe and its location to Kimberly Clark, the social worker who documented the story, asking her to check into it. The social worker was skeptical, but went to the location Maria described, where much to her surprise, she found the tennis shoe exactly as Maria had said. It would have been impossible for her to see the shoe from her hospital room. In Clark’s words:

“The only way she could have had such a perspective was if she had been floating right outside and at very close range to the tennis shoe. I retrieved the shoe and brought it back to Maria; it was very concrete evidence for me”.[iii][iv]

In spite of many strong evidential cases like this, naturalistic scientists continue to cling to the idea that NDEs occur in the brain, and have come up with various theories and the case studies to prove them. British psychologist Susan Blackmore presents the “dying brain” hypothesis, suggesting that a lack of oxygen during the dying process might cause the neurons in the brain to fire abnormally, but other experts argue that if that were the case, most cardiac arrest patients would report a NDE.[v] Another problem is that some NDEers were not terminally ill at the time of their experience so they would have had normal levels of oxygen in their brains. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the temporal lobes is another theory and method through which scientists claim to have produced NDEs, but the experiences of participants in these studies are not like typical NDEs, and NDEers experience heightened mental functions when brain activity is greatly impaired or even absent.[vi] Psychiatrist Karl Jensen speculates that the drug, ketamine might induce an NDE, but ketamine experiencers are aware that what they are experiencing is an illusion, while NDEers are convinced that what they experience is reality.[vii] NDEs also typically result in deep psychological and spiritual changes that science fails to be able to account for. These findings, among others, strongly challenge the naturalistic scientific view. The naturalistic argument; that man, the organic machine, developed God and higher spirituality because he was terrified over his mortality, is weak. The evidence of near death experiences, as well as those of extrasensory perception and psychic phenomenon, serve to contradict the premise that “we are our brain”.

Neurosurgeon, Dr. Eben Alexander wrote about his own NDE in his best-selling book, “Proof of Heaven”. Before his experience, Alexander held a materialist reductionist worldview, but his NDE dramatically altered that. In the book, he boldly asserts that science will prove that heaven exists. He foresees a rise in consciousness and a more enlightened world forcing science to abandon reductive materialism.[viii] Alexander’s view represents those of prominent NDEers and NDE researchers, such as Bruce Greyson, Elisabeth Kubler Ross, Pim van Lommel, Peter & Elizabeth Fenwick and P.M.H.Atwater.[ix] These NDE researchers all adhere to a mystical/occult/oneist worldview. There are a few stragglers who offer a slant on the biblical worldview such as Howard Pitman, who, in his many books, claims to have visited the spiritual realm several times and been shown the rank and order of demons as well as details of their operations. There’s also Howard Storm, author of “My Descent Into Death”, who allegedly converted to Christianity as a result of his NDE. But, the Christianity Storm preaches has a cultish, legalistic twist. It is noteworthy that both a focus on demonology and legalistic Christianity can be traced back to the Kabbalah, or, more basically, man looking inward rather than outward (to his creator) for answers to the human condition. There are NDEers whose experiences reflect a biblical worldview (mine having been one of them), but they are few and far between, and, to my awareness, none of them have produced bestselling books.

Skeptics remain on both the naturalist and religious sides of the NDE argument. In the words of Dean Radin in his book “Exploring the Evidence for Extraordinary Psychic Abilities”:

“On the religious side, within the Judeo-Christian-Islamic traditions, only God is allowed to perform miracles. Ordinary folks who perform such feats are considered suspect (by theists) if they’re lucky and heretical if they’re not. And on the scientific side, there is a widely held assumption that these phenomena cannot exist because they violate one or more scientific principles.”[x]

A Pervasive Theme: Pantheistic Monism

NDEs can certainly hold their own under the scrutiny of naturalistic science, but what’s far more important is the reliability of the spiritual “truth” they bring. While NDEs tend to be interpreted in the vocabulary of the religion of the experiencer, the common messages they present, such as,

“death is good”

“everyone has a good afterlife”

“there is no judgment.”

These sweep away any notion of evil, sin or accountability for ill-inspired action in this world and largely present one very particular religious view known as pantheistic monism, or oneism; the view that God is identical with nature and the cosmos and that all reality is a manifestation of God. Oneism holds that nothing outside of God exists; rejecting the idea that God is independent from the universe.

Pantheism is criticized by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer as merely a “euphemism for atheism” He further states that “to call the world God is not to explain it; it is only to enrich our language with a superfluous synonym for the word world,” (Schopenhauer 1851). In his book, “The God Delusion”, quantum physicist Richard Dawkins complains that “Pantheism is sexed-up Atheism”.

Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza is credited with introducing the idea of pantheistic monism (Oneism) to modern philosophy. In his article “Pantheism”, Stanford’s William Mander says that:

“Spinoza’s ideas were highly respected by secular scientists, like Albert Einstein. Kabbalists, Talmudists and Midrashic tradition supports the idea of pantheistic monism as well”.[xi]

Where pantheism states that God is in everything, pantheistic monism, popular in Eastern religions, presents an impersonal, oneist view of the cosmos. Pantheistic monism views God as an impersonal, single reality which all existence is part of. New Age adherents believe that our truest state is that of “oneness”. Their practices, serving to attain “consciousness” of this reality, involve the use of various techniques such as chanting, meditation and even entheogens such as ayahuasca or psilocybin to mystically experience this oneness with God.[xii]

Within the confines of pantheistic monism, there is no room for evil, and the concept of self is merely an illusion. Pantheistic monism asserts that we will be absorbed into the “great one whole” and cease to exist. The pantheistic view diminishes the value of people as unique individuals, instead viewing human life as meaningless and trivial, since it will ultimately to be forgotten. This idea lines up directly with the common messages of NDEs; “death is good”, “everyone has a good afterlife”, “there is no judgment”, and flies in the face of human experience and the problem of evil. If everything is God, and if God is good, then there is no explanation for the existence of evil, which common experience tells us exists. In contrast, the biblical worldview, which I personally believe provides the most comprehensive answer to the problem of evil, maintains that God the creator is distinct from his creation and that every human life holds great value (Gen 1.1, Jn 1.1, Rom 1.18.).

Pantheistic Monism and the New Age Movement

The prevalence of this erroneous view in our world today is seen in an almost ubiquitous trend toward New Age/Eastern mystical thought (including in the Christian church) and a worldwide rise in occultism. Dr. Carl A Raschke, professor of religious studies at the University of Denver calls the New Age Movement “the most powerful social force in the world today”,[xiii] contending that it is as much a political, as a religious movement, influencing business management theory and many other areas. Robert Lindsey writes in the New York Times that

“Representatives of some of the nation’s largest corporations, including IBM, AT&T, and GENERAL MOTORS met in New Mexico to discuss how meta-physics, the occult, and Hindu mysticism might help executives compete in the  world market place”.[xiv]

The New Age movement (named for the idea that the world is about to enter a utopian age of Aquarius) can be considered a predictable reaction against the current naturalistic empirical scientific worldview which utterly excludes the subjective, whole experience of human life. This vacuum has provided fertile ground for occult schools of thought.

Douglas R. Groothuis, research associate with Probe Ministries in Seattle, Washington, identifies six distinctive traits of New Age thought which exemplify pantheistic monism and NDEs. They are; “All is one; All is God; Humanity is God; A change in consciousness; All religions are one; Cosmic evolutionary optimism”.[xv] The same theme is found in mystical Kabbalah: As Jewish mystical philosopher, Moses Cordovero writes:

“Do not say ‘This is a stone and not God.’ God forbid! Rather, all existence is God, and the stone is a thing pervaded by divinity”.[xvi]

Pantheistic Monism and Kabbalah

This Kabbalist notion of God is virtually identical with the pantheistic monism taught later by Spinoza.

The way in which pantheism affects ethics is vital to this discussion. In pantheism, there is no higher power or external authority to dictate moral right and wrong since it rejects any notion of a divine, external lawgiver. Since it regards deity as something that all equally possess, it logically leads to the communitarian ethics espoused by the New Age Movement and its anticipated utopian New World Order. Whether we want to acknowledge religion and spirituality or not, many, if not most political ideologies are based upon religious beliefs. Communism, Zionism and the goals of a New World Order are all based on mystical Kabbalah/pantheistic monism.

Leafing through one of the books on NDEs, written by a “Christian” while standing in line recently, my heart sank as I once again read the all too familiar messages;

“Death is good”

“Everyone has a great afterlife” as well as another common one;

“Physical reality is only a ‘hologram’”

Even many Christian teachers today, naively believe that “dimensions” are the spiritual realm, when the “dimensions” purported by modern physics are merely a new, technologically palatable version of Plato”s Forms or Kabballah”s 11 Sefirot. In the words of Kabbalists Sanford Drob and Joel Abrams:

“The Kabbalistic doctrine of the ten Sefirot is, thus, a world of Judaeo-Platonic forms, understood by the Kabbalists to be the value archetypes through which God created and structured the cosmos”.[xvii]

“But Kabbalah is a metaphorical description of a set of fundamental universal relationships which in light of modern astrophysics appears closer to reality than the infinite rectangular space of the Newtonian worldview”.[xviii]

Science, Philosophy and Kabbalah

Science is the standard against which all things in our society must be measured in order to be considered credible. And yet, it is naturalistic science that should be held to closer scrutiny, since most, if not all the great men of science were Kabbalists or Freemasons, holding to mystical worldviews. Ironically, (or maybe not) the naturalistic, scientific, empirical atheist worldview was developed by occultists. In the 16th century, modern chemistry emerged from the (occult) practices and theories of Alchemy. Alchemists studied nature, philosophy, chemistry, metal work, physics, medicine, astrology, mysticism, spiritualism and art. Accordingly, the science of quantum physics, which is celebrated by many today as science daring to dip its toe into the great sea of spirituality, seemingly affirming the scientific credibility of NDEs, was originally presented by Aristotle, who described his science of physics as “all there is to know about the world”.[xix]  In fact, Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates were all well versed in mystical Kabbalah, which was strongly reflected in their work. Kabbalist Halperin, Rabbi of Minsk (1660-1746’s) states that:

“Plato received wisdom from the prophets, and Socrates studied from Achitofel and Assaf HaKarchi”.[xx]

Aristotle teaches the concept of extra physical entities, or “prime movers” in his metaphysics and physics. The primary task of Aristotle’s “first philosophy” is to study these entities through the metaphysical study of physical entities. According to Bodner, Aristotle believes that;

“As there are such separate entities, physics is dependent on these, and is only a second philosophy”.[xxi]

NDEers commonly report seeing entities, or “light beings”, most of which bring messages of love, although some NDEers report frightening encounters.

A further study of Plato, Aristotle and Socrates will serve to support the claim that modern science and physics have religious, occult roots. We would be remiss to buy into the idea that theoretical, quantum physics is a sign that science is “catching up” and acknowledging the supernatural.

There are renowned theologians who support the premise of the near death experience, such as R.C. Sproul who has written:

“Too many of these experiences have been reported for us to simply dismiss them as imaginary or hoaxes”.[xxii]

NDE’s: What They Are Not

But we must examine the messages being brought back by NDEers in light of the rise in occultism today. Hard questions must be asked. When held to the scrutiny of a biblical worldview it becomes clear that NDEs are playing a significant role in a time of great deception.

It is crucial to understand that NDEs are not resurrections, as they are being treated. Nor is there an “in between” state where people can pop into and out of heaven (at their own choosing). Biblical scripture asserts that:

“… it is appointed for man to die once, and after that comes judgment” (Heb. 9.27-28).

Those who practice astral projection (the soul traveling apart from the body), report seeing a “silver cord” which connects them to their body, something which is referred to in scripture as being intact until the person dies. Even occultists would agree that once a person dies, this cannot be reconnected (outside of a divine miracle, as in the case of the resurrection of Jesus Christ or Lazarus from the dead). The writer of Ecclesiastes mentions the silver cord:

“[Remember God] before the silver cord be loosed…” (Ecc. 12.6).

This verse is interesting in light of the biblical story of Jesus” raising Talitha, the little girl from the dead. Jesus said that she was not dead, but “merely sleeping” (Mt 9.24).

An Apparent Agenda

Appealing to those who would normally take no interest in the occult, NDEs blur the lines between scientific, biblical and occult worldviews, making occult spirituality appear palatable and benign rather than the nefarious evil that it is. Many are relying on NDE testimonials from “beyond the grave” to reveal spiritual truth and provide evidence of the afterlife, when in fact they are serving to normalize occult spirituality.

The pervasive themes and profoundly religious nature of NDEs warrant further investigation. Amoral rationalism; the belief that there is no absolute right or wrong, that truth is relative to the individual or culture presented by NDEs is the trademark belief of the occult. Dark occultist Aleister Crowley”s words “Do as thou wilt” is the mantra of anarchism which is the logical end of spiritual rationalism. Those adherent to New Age spirituality may protest the comparison, but while the “light occult” spirituality typically presented by NDEs do not promote anarchism, we are seeing an unprecedented rise in our society of immorality, chaos, violence and general lawlessness. Media is normalizing immorality by presenting ever increasingly illicit sexual scenes. Unabashed satanic rituals are played out and aired under the guise of Super Bowl halftime entertainment, the Grammy Awards Show, and perhaps the most blatant being the ceremony at the opening of the Gotthard Base Tunnel in Switzerland in 2016.  The effect this is having on society is apparent. With the breakdown of morality, we are seeing the breakdown of the family unit. More and more children are being raised in single family homes by parents who are either divorced or were never married to begin with, working twice as hard to keep a roof over their heads. Children from homes without a father are statistically at higher risk of criminal activity and drug use. Promiscuity is portrayed as normal on television and alternate sexual lifestyles are presented in unrealistic proportions. What seems to be lost on the public is the leading role that sexual immorality plays in satanic occult ritual. Even a casual review of history will show that the decline of sexual morality has always preempted the downfall of civilizations.

While vertical NDEs serve to dispel naturalism and empiricism; the popular messages presented by them are worrisome. Particularly in light of the stated goals of the leaders of the New Age Movement, which are to bring about a global, spiritual utopia that will replace the current naturalistic scientific worldview as well as all nationalism. In a pamphlet titled “The New Group of World Servers” printed by Lucis Trust and distributed by a group calling itself “World Goodwill”, is written the following:

“Humanity is not following a haphazard or uncharted course –there is a Plan….a spiritual Hierarchy of the planet…a synthetic unity… [The leaders will] provide the vision and mould public opinion. Behind these leaders and co-operating men of goodwill are the Custodians of the Plan, the inner spiritual Government of the Planet.” – [xxiii]

New Age leaders believe that their planned shift in consciousness will occur when a collapse of our current society (including empiricism and religions professing a separate, creative God, ie. Christianity, Judaism and Islam) leads to desperation for a (their) new (spiritual) leader.

In conclusion, many NDEs, including my own, have brought experiencers miraculous revelation and hope. But while miracles throughout scripture serve the distinct purpose of in some way bringing glory to God, and always to the ends of drawing people to their creator who loves them and values their uniqueness, the majority of NDEs are instead promoting occult mysticism (pantheistic monism). As disappointing as it might be to devotees of the “religion of the resuscitated”[xxiv], people are not visiting heaven. Although these experiences do provide evidence that the soul can exist for a time apart from the body, this “soulish realm” is the realm in which the occult has operated since the beginning of time. Many NDEs have produced positive life changes, but the fact remains that until actual death, the disembodied soul is still in this world. And as such, it is still subject to the same deceptions as it is when housed in the body.

 

[i] Barry Singer, Victor A. Benassi. “Occult Beliefs.” American Scientist (1981): 49-55. Web.

[ii] Putnam, Cris. Supernatural Worldview. Crane: Putnam, 2014. Print.

[iii] Clark, Kimberly. Clinical Interventions with Near-Death-Experiencers: Problems, Prospects, Perspectives. Springfield: Thomas, 1984. Print.

[iv] Beauregard, Mario. Brain Wars. New York: Harper, 2012. Print.

[v] Blackmore, Susan. “Near Death Experiences Do Not Prove Life After Death. Is There Life After Death?” Skeptical Inquirer. Fall 1991: 34-45. Web-Gale.

[vi] Natalie Trent-Von Haesler, Mario Beauregard. “Archives of Clinical Psychiatry.” nd 2013. SciElo. Web. 1 Apr 2017.

[vii] Aaen-Stockdale, Craig. “Neuroscience For The Soul.” nd. The Psychologist. Web. 26 March 2017.

[viii] Alexander, Eben. Proof of Heaven. New York: Simon, 2012. Print.

[ix] Greyson, Bruce. “Near Death Experiences and the Physio Kundalini Syndrome.” Journal of Religion and Health (1993): 277-290. Web. 5 Apr 2017.

[x] Radin, Dean. Supernormal: Science, Yoga, and the Evidence for Extraordinary Psychic Abilities. Deepak Chopra, 2013. kindle.

[xi] ibid

[xii] Miller, Elliott. “The New Age Movement: What is it?” 1985. CRI. Web. 17 Mar 2017.

[xiii] Rasche, Dr Carl. “Business as Usual: The New Age Rage and Corporate America.” SCP Journal (1989): 22. Web. 31 Mar 2017.

[xiv] Lindsay, Robert. “Part B.” New York Times 28 September 1986: np. Print.

[xv] Groothius, Dr. Douglas. “To heaven and back? .” Apr 1995. Christianity Today. Web. 18 Mar 2017.

[xvi] Cordova, Moses. “Rabbi Moses Cordovero, Mystic Sage of Kabbalah.” 2006. Enlightened Spirituality. Web. 9 Mar 2017.

[xvii] Drob, Sanford L. “Platonism and the Kabbalah: Lurianic Kabbalah.” 2001. New Kabbalah.Web. 24 Mar 2017.

[xviii] Abrams, Joel R.Primack and Nancy Ellen. “`In a beginning …”“: Quantum cosmology and Kabbalah.” Tikkun (1995): 66-73. Web.

[xix] Bodnar, Istvan. “Aristotle”s Natural Philosophy.” Winter 2016 . The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. 2 Apr 2017.

[xx] Rabbi of Minsk, Halperin. “Science Within Torah (Seder HaDorot 3385).” nd. Chabad.org. Web. 9 Mar 2017.

[xxi] Bodnar.

[xxii] Sproul, R.C. Now, That”s a Good Question! Wheaton: Tyndale, 1996. Print.

[xxiii] Jaspar, William F. “The New World Religion.” Global Tyranny Step by Step. Appleton: Western, 1992. p.216. Print.

[xxiv] Groothius, Dr. Douglas. “To heaven and back? .” Apr 1995. Christianity Today. Web. 18 Mar 2017.

Further Works Cited

Moody, Raymond. Life After Life. New York: Harper, 1975.

Schaffer, Jonathan. “Monism.” Winter 2016 . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. 28 Mar 2017.

Spergel, David. “WMAP Space-Mission Survey of the Universe After the Big Bang Completed-Its Results Hint at a Far Stranger Cosmos.” 8 10 2010. The Daily Galaxy. Web. 20 March 2017.

 

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